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research supporting peer work

This is not an exhaustive list of all research around lived experience leadership and peer work. Please send any new (or old) research you discover in your travels to


This list is sorted in order of publication year.

Edan, V., Sellick, K., Ainsworth, S., Alvarez-Varquez, S., Johnson, B., & Smale, K. et al. (2021). Employed but not included: the case of consumer-workers in mental health care services. The International Journal Of Human Resource Management, 1-30. doi: 10.1080/09585192.2020.1863248 

This article explores how employees with mental illness perceive HRM and its impact, drawing on consumer-centred perspectives. 


White, S., Foster, R., Marks, J., Morshead, R., Goldsmith, L., & Barlow, S. et al. (2020).BMC Psychiatry, 20(1), 534

This study aims to systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of one-to-one peer support interventions for adults using mental health services, and to explore heterogeneity in peer support interventions.

Twamley, I., Dempsey, M., & Keane, N. (2020). An Open Dialogue-informed approach to mental health service delivery: experiences of service users and support networks. Journal Of Mental Health, 1-6. doi: 10.1080/09638237.2020.1739238

This chapter is about peer support and open dialogue (OD). 


Moss, C., Warner, T., Happell, B., & Scholz, B. (2020). Motivations for allyship with mental health consumer movements. Qualitative Research In Psychology, 1-18. doi: 10.1080/14780887.2020.1718814

People working within mental health organisations or systems but not in dedicated lived experience roles might still make contributions as allies to mental health consumer movements. The current study explores the motivations of such allies, specifically in relation to collaborations with consumers and targeting systemic change when providing support. 

Ibrahim, N., Thompson, D., Nixdorf, R., Kalha, J., Mpango, R., & Moran, G. et al. (2019). A systematic review of influences on implementation of peer support work for adults with mental health problems. Social Psychiatry And Psychiatric Epidemiology, 55(3), 285-293. doi: 10.1007/s00127-019-01739-1

The evidence base for peer support work in mental health is established, yet implementation remains a challenge. The aim of this systematic review was to identify influences which facilitate or are barriers to implementation of mental health peer support work.

Marill, M. (2019). Beyond Twelve Steps, Peer-Supported Mental Health Care. Health Affairs, 38(6), 896-901. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2019.00503

In Georgia, peer providers bring lived experience and a focus on recovery to the behavioural health workforce.

Daya, I., Hamilton, B., & Roper, C. (2019). Authentic engagement: A conceptual model for welcoming diverse and challenging consumer and survivor views in mental health research, policy, and practice. International Journal Of Mental Health Nursing, 29(2), 299-311. doi: 10.1111/inm.12653.

This paper introduces a conceptual model that supports leaders in research, clinical, service, and policy roles to understand the necessity of engaging with a broader spectrum of consumer/survivor views and voices. The model draws on published consumer/survivor materials, making explicit diverse experiences of treatment and care and identifying the subsequent rich consumer/survivor advocacy agendas. 

Byrne, L., Roennfeldt, H., Wang, Y., & O'Shea, P. (2019). ‘You don't know what you don't know’: The essential role of management exposure, understanding and commitment in peer workforce development. International Journal Of Mental Health Nursing, 572-581.

This paper explores the role of executive and senior management understanding in the employment of peer roles. 


Juntanamalaga, P., Scholz, B., Roper, C., & Happell, B. (2019). ‘They can't empower us’: The role of allies in the consumer movement. International Journal Of Mental Health Nursing,857-866. doi: 10.1111/inm.12585

There have been calls for research to focus on allies – those who use their power to support and advocate for the goals of the consumer movement. This study aimed to examine the role of allies in consumer empowerment. 

Puschner, B., Repper, J., Mahlke, C., Nixdorf, R., Basangwa, D., & Nakku, J. et al. (2019). Using Peer Support in Developing Empowering Mental Health Services (UPSIDES): Background, Rationale and Methodology. Annals Of Global Health, 85(1). doi: 10.5334/aogh.2435 

Peers are people with lived experience of mental illness. Peer support is an established intervention in which peers offer support to others with mental illness. A large proportion of people living with severe mental illness receive no care. The care gap is largest in low- and middle-income countries, with detrimental effects on individuals and societies. The global shortage of human resources for mental health is an important driver of the care gap. Peers are an under-used resource in global mental health.

Ryan, G., Kamuhiirwa, M., Mugisha, J., Baillie, D., Hall, C., & Newman, C. et al. (2019). Peer support for frequent users of inpatient mental health care in Uganda: protocol of a quasi-experimental study. BMC Psychiatry, 19(1). doi: 10.1186/s12888-019-2360-8

Reducing readmissions among frequent users of psychiatric inpatient care could result in substantial cost savings to under-resourced mental health systems. 

Happell, B., Gordon, S., Bocking, J., Ellis, P., Roper, C., & Liggins, J. et al. (2018). How did I not see that? Perspectives of nonconsumer mental health researchers on the benefits of collaborative research with consumers. International Journal Of Mental Health Nursing, 27(4), 1230-1239. doi: 10.1111/inm.12453

A qualitative exploratory study was undertaken to examine perspectives of mental health researchers about consumer involvement in research. The findings emphasize the important contribution consumer researchers can make to mental health research by bringing their unique perspective and enhancing an environment of mutual learning. Findings also point to the need for foregrounding the numerous benefits of joint research between consumer and other researchers to enhance and improve clinical practice and the development of policy.


Byrne, L., Roennfeldt, H., O’Shea, P., & Macdonald, F. (2018). Taking a Gamble for High Rewards? Management Perspectives on the Value of Mental Health Peer Workers. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health, 15(4), 746.

This study aimed to better understand the views of management in relation to peer work and specifically explores the value of peer work from the perspective of management. 

Walsh, P., McMillan, S., Stewart, V., & Wheeler, A. (2018). Understanding paid peer support in mental health. Disability & Society, 579-597

This study aimed to explore, articulate and expand on existing concepts of recovery and paid peer support within consumer-operated mental health organizations. 

Kaine, C. (2018). Towards Professionalisation. Private Mental Health Consumer Carer Network (Australia) Ltd.

This literature review aims to explore Australian and international best practice standards for mental health peer workforce development and to inform the professionalization of the peer workforce in Australia through the establishment of a mental health peer workforce membership organisation.

Pyle, M., Pilling, S., Machin, K., Allende-Cullen, G., & Morrison, A. (2018). Peer support for internalised stigma experienced by people with psychosis: rationale and recommendations. Psychosis 146-152

In this paper, we argue that peer support is a suitable intervention for addressing internalised stigma and warrants further research. We provide a theoretical and evidence-based rationale for this argument and outlines some of the key challenges and possible solutions for future trials of peer support as an intervention for internalised stigma.

Kent, M. (2018). Developing a Strategy to Embed Peer Support into Mental Health Systems. Administration And Policy In Mental Health And Mental Health Services Research, 271-276

Recent literature will be reviewed to explore current knowledge about peer support, and offer considerations for effective implementation of peer supports into current health care systems.


Gagne, C., Finch, W., Myrick, K., & Davis, L. (2018). Peer Workers in the Behavioural and Integrated Health Workforce: Opportunities and Future Directions. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 258-S266

This article describes the experiences that organizations and their workforce, including peer workers, encounter as they integrate peer support services into the array of behavioural health services. 

Scholz, B., & Happell, B. (2018). Response to Commentary by von Peter to Happell, Brenda, & Scholz, Brett (2018). Doing what we can, but knowing our place: Being an ally to promote consumer leadership in mental health. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 27(1), 440-447. International Journal Of Mental Health Nursing, 28(1), 361-362. doi: 10.1111/inm.12556

In the present study, we address the importance of allies for the consumer movement. It proposes some ‘rules of engagement’ to ensure that allies do not intentionally or otherwise encroach on consumer knowledge and expertise, so that they maintain the important position of supporting consumers and facilitating the valuing and use of consumer knowledge, expertise, and ultimately, leadership.

Happell, B., Gordon, S., Bocking, J., Ellis, P., Roper, C., & Liggins, J. et al. (2018). “Chipping away”: non-consumer researcher perspectives on barriers to collaborating with consumers in mental health research. Journal Of Mental Health, 28(1), 49-55. doi: 10.1080/09638237.2018.1466051

Collaboration between researchers who have lived experience of mental illness and services (consumer researchers) and mental health researchers without (other mental health researchers) is an emergent development in research. Inclusion of consumer perspectives is crucial to ensuring the ethics, relevancy and validity of mental health research; yet widespread and embedded consumer collaboration of this nature is known to be impeded by attitudinal and organisational factors. 


Scholz, B., & Happell, B. (2018). Response to Commentary by von Peter to Happell, Brenda, & Scholz, Brett (2018). Doing what we can, but knowing our place: Being an ally to promote consumer leadership in mental health. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 27(1), 440-447. International Journal Of Mental Health Nursing, 28(1), 361-362. doi: 10.1111/inm.12556

In this discursive paper, we argue that non‐consumers who support consumer partnerships and leadership (known as ‘allies’) have an important role to play in facilitating and supporting consumers in leadership roles. We call for allies to ensure their role is one of support and facilitation (doing what they can), rather than directing the content or speaking on behalf of the consumer movement (knowing their place).

Byrne, L., Stratford, A., & Davidson, L. (2018). The global need for lived experience leadership. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 41(1), 76-79. doi: 10.1037/prj0000289

Common challenges and experiences of the lived experience/peer workforce globally are considered, with an emphasis on ensuring that future developments both protect and promote the unique lived experience perspective. 

Moran, G. (2018). The mental health consumer movement and peer providers in Israel. Epidemiology And Psychiatric Sciences, 27(5), 420-426. doi: 10.1017/s2045796018000173 

The Israeli case demonstrates how the consumer movement can play an active role in MH systems and be acknowledged and recognised as a partner for changing policy, practice and reshaping formal institutions. In addition, they play a vital role in the development of peer-support services.

Puschner, B. (2018). Peer support and global mental health. Epidemiology And Psychiatric Sciences, 27(5), 413-414. doi: 10.1017/s204579601800015x

Peer support is an empirically validated resource-oriented therapeutic promoting recovery . During the last decades, peer support has been implemented to varying degrees in mental health services of many high income countries. At the same time, the burden of mental disorders and the treatment gap between those in need and those actually receiving formal mental health care is especially prominent in low and middle income countries.

Byrom, N. (2018). An evaluation of a peer support intervention for student mental health. Journal Of Mental Health, 27(3), 240-246. doi: 10.1080/09638237.2018.1437605 

Peer support is support provided by and for people with similar experiences. As students turn to peers for support with their mental health, peer support may provide an opportunity to engage students at an informal level and avoid some barriers to help-seeking.

Watson, E. (2017). The growing pains of peer support. Mental Health And Social Inclusion, 21(3), 129-132. doi: 10.1108/mhsi-03-2017-0017

We live in distinctly adolescent times for peer support. As a concept, it has grown beyond infancy, gradually moving from the periphery to occupy an ever more prominent place in mental health policy and practice across the western world.


Dark, F., Patton, M., & Newton, R. (2017). A substantial peer workforce in a psychiatric service will improve patient outcomes: the case for. Australasian Psychiatry, 25(5), 441-444

This statement of opinion relates to an invited debate on the role of peer workers in psychiatric services during the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists conference 2016. 


Gillard, S., Foster, R., Gibson, S., Goldsmith, L., Marks, J., & White, S. (2017). Describing a principles-based approach to developing and evaluating peer worker roles as peer support moves into mainstream mental health services. Mental Health And Social Inclusion, 21(3), 133-143

The purpose of this paper is to describe a “principles-based” approach to developing and evaluating a new peer worker role in mental health services.

Scholz, B., Bocking, J., & Happell, B. (2017). Improving exchange with consumers within mental health organizations: Recognizing mental ill health experience as a ‘sneaky, special degree’. International Journal Of Mental Health Nursing, 27(1), 227-235. doi: 10.1111/inm.12312

Findings suggest stigma is still prevalent even in organizations that have consumers in leadership positions, and consumers are often perceived as less able to work in mental health organizations than non‐consumers.


Scholz, B., Bocking, J., & Happell, B. (2017). How do consumer leaders co-create value in mental health organisations?. Australian Health Review, 41(5), 505. doi: 10.1071/ah16105 

Drawing on a service-dominant logic, which emphasises the co-creation of value of services, the present study provides an overview of consumer leadership within mental health organisations in the Australian Capital Territory.

Meagher, J., Stratford, A., Jackson, F., Jayakody, E., & Fong, T (2018). Peer work in Australia: A new future for mental health. Sydney: RichmondPRA and Mind Australia

This book is a landmark on the journey of peer work in the mental health sector in Australia. The growth of the peer workforce, along with the development of new areas of engage­ment such as the National Disability Insurance Scheme and expansion of the evidence base supporting peer work, highlighted the need for documenting the progress, achievements and future outlook of peer work in the mental health sector in Australia.

Stratford, A., Halpin, M., Phillips, K., Skerritt, F., Beales, A., & Cheng, V. et al. (2017). The growth of peer support: an international charter. Journal of Mental Health, 28(6), 627-632. doi: 10.1080/09638237.2017.1340593

While mental health peer support originated in its contemporary form in English-speaking countries, it is now spreading rapidly across the globe. This rapid growth presents two major challenges. The first pertains to “role integrity” and the second to the possible culture-bound nature of peer support; a concern which has attended the emergence of peer support in countries that have significantly different worldviews.

Bellamy, C., Schmutte, T., & Davidson, L. (2017). An update on the growing evidence base for peer support. Mental Health And Social Inclusion, 21(3), 161-167. doi: 10.1108/mhsi-03-2017-0014 

The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the current evidence base for peer support for adults with mental illness in two domains: mental health and recovery, and physical health and wellness.

Thornicroft, G., Mehta, N., Clement, S., Evans-Lacko, S., Doherty, M., & Rose, D. et al. (2016). Evidence for effective interventions to reduce mental-health-related stigma and discrimination. The Lancet, 387(10023), 1123-1132. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(15)00298-6

In this narrative review, we summarise what is known globally from published systematic reviews and primary data on effective interventions intended to reduce mental-illness-related stigma or discrimination. 

Naslund, J., Aschbrenner, K., Marsch, L., & Bartels, S. (2016). The future of mental health care: peer-to-peer support and social media. Epidemiology And Psychiatric Sciences, 25(2), 113-122. doi: 10.1017/s2045796015001067

We offer a perspective on how online peer-to-peer connections among people with serious mental illness could advance efforts to promote mental and physical wellbeing in this group.

Crane, D., Lepicki, T., & Knudsen, K. (2016). Unique and common elements of the role of peer support in the context of traditional mental health services. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 39(3), 282-288. doi: 10.1037/prj0000186

The goal of this report is to clarify the unique role of peer support providers (PSPs) and define peer support as a distinct occupation in the context of traditional mental health services. 

Byrne, L., Roper, C., Happell, B., & Reid-Searl, K. (2016). The stigma of identifying as having a lived experience runs before me: challenges for lived experience roles. Journal Of Mental Health, 28(3), 260-266. doi: 10.1080/09638237.2016.1244715

Lived experience practitioners can contribute to improved outcomes for people with mental illness, supplementing traditional mental health services and reducing health care costs. However, lived experience practitioners frequently face stigma and discrimination within their work roles.


Vandewalle, J., Debyser, B., Beeckman, D., Vandecasteele, T., Van Hecke, A., & Verhaeghe, S. (2016). Peer workers’ perceptions and experiences of barriers to implementation of peer worker roles in mental health services: A literature review. International Journal Of Nursing Studies, 60, 234-250.

This report aims to identify peer workers’ perceptions and experiences of barriers to implementation of peer worker roles in mental health services.

Myrick, K., & del Vecchio, P. (2016). Peer support services in the behavioural healthcare workforce: State of the field. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 197-203

This article examines how the history and philosophy of peer support services has shaped current mental health and substance use service delivery systems.


Ahmed, A., Hunter, K., Mabe, A., Tucker, S., & Buckley, P. (2015). The Professional Experiences of Peer Specialists in the Georgia Mental Health Consumer Network. Community Mental Health Journal, 51(4), 424-436. doi: 10.1007/s10597-015-9854-8 

This study explored the professional experiences of peer specialists including the basic roles, benefits, and potential challenges of the peer specialist role. 

Trachtenberg, M., Parsonage, M., Shepherd, G., & Boardmann, J. (2015). Peer support in mental health care: is it good value for money? - LSE Research Online

This paper makes a first attempt at assessing whether peer support provides value for money, looking specifically at whether peer support workers can reduce psychiatric inpatient bed use. 

Austin, E., Ramakrishnan, A., & Hopper, K. (2014). Embodying Recovery: A Qualitative Study of Peer Work in a Consumer-Run Service Setting. Community Mental Health Journal, 50(8), 879-885

This study sought to clarify the characteristics that constitute peer support and its contribution to recovery. 

Simpson, A., Flood, C., Rowe, J. et al. Results of a pilot randomised controlled trial to measure the clinical and cost effectiveness of peer support in increasing hope and quality of life in mental health patients discharged from hospital in the UK. BMC Psychiatry 14, 30 (2014). 

The benefits of peer support in mental health services have been identified in a number of studies with some suggesting clinical and economic gains in patients being discharged.

Gillard, S.G., Edwards, C., Gibson, S.L. et al. Introducing peer worker roles into UK mental health service teams: a qualitative analysis of the organisational benefits and challenges. BMC Health Serv Res 13, 188 (2013).

In this paper we seek to address a gap in the empirical literature in understanding the organisational challenges and benefits of introducing Peer Worker roles into mental health service teams.


Moran, G.S., Russinova, Z., Gidugu, V. et al. Challenges Experienced by Paid Peer Providers in Mental Health Recovery: A Qualitative Study. Community Ment Health J 49, 281–291 (2013).

We explored challenges experienced by 31 peer providers in diverse settings and roles using in-depth interviews, as part of a larger study focusing on their recovery (Moran et al. in Qual Health Res, 2012). A grounded theory approach revealed three challenge domains: work environment, occupational path, and personal mental health. 

Daniels, A., Bergeson, S., Fricks, L., Ashenden, P., & Powell, I. (2012). Pillars of peer support: advancing the role of peer support specialists in promoting recovery. The Journal Of Mental Health Training, Education And Practice, 7(2), 60-69. doi: 10.1108/17556221211236457

This paper aims to focus on The Pillars of Peer Support initiative, an ongoing project to examine and develop the principles of peer support services. These services are differentiated from peer support and define the parameters of a certified workforce that promotes recovery and fosters wellbeing. 


Miyamoto, Y., & Sono, T. (2012). Lessons from peer support among individuals with mental health difficulties: A review of the literature. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, 8, Article 22-29. doi/10.2174/1745017901208010022

The purposes of this review were to describe the principles, effects and benefits of peer support documented in the published literature, to discuss challenging aspects of peer support and to investigate lessons from peer support. 

Campbell, C., & Burgess, R. (2012). The role of communities in advancing the goals of the Movement for Global Mental Health. Transcultural Psychiatry, 49(3-4), 379-395. doi: 10.1177/1363461512454643 

This special section of Transcultural Psychiatry explores the local-global spaces of engagement being opened up by the Movement for Global Mental Health, with particular emphasis on the need for expanded engagement with local communities. 

Kemp, V., & Henderson, A. (2012). Challenges faced by mental health peer support workers: Peer support from the peer supporter's point of view. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 35(4), 337-340. doi: 10.2975/35.4.2012.337.340

This study aimed to identify the various challenges encountered by peer support workers in Western Australia in the course of their work and to identify possible solutions to those challenges.  

Bouchard, L., Montreuil, M., & Gros, C. (2010). Peer Support among Inpatients in an Adult Mental Health Setting. Issues In Mental Health Nursing, 31(9), 589-598.                                      

doi: 10.3109/01612841003793049 

The purpose of the current study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of naturally occurring peer support among adult mental health inpatients. 

Basset, T., Faulkner, A., Repper, J., & Stamou, E. (2010). Lived Experience Leading The Way Peer Support in Mental Health.

Too often, answers to the question ‘How can we improve the lives of people with mental health problems?’ have taken the form of a prescription for more mental health professionals. Arguments reign about exactly which professionals we need more of (doctors, psychologists, nurses, complementary therapists ...). But what such disputes obscure is the key point that mental health professionals of whatever hue do not hold the key to recovery.

Bradstreet, S., & Pratt, R. (2010). Developing peer support worker roles: reflecting on experiences in Scotland. Mental Health And Social Inclusion36-41. doi: 10.5042/mhsi.2010.0443 

This article describes the development of peer support roles and programmes in Scotland, and includes findings from an evaluation of a peer support worker pilot scheme. 


Landers, G., & Zhou, M. (2009). An Analysis of Relationships Among Peer Support, Psychiatric Hospitalization, and Crisis Stabilization. Community Mental Health Journal, 47(1), 106-112. doi: 10.1007/s10597-009-9218-3 

This study’s objective was to investigate how peer support relates to psychiatric hospitalization and crisis stabilization utilization outcomes. 

Adame, A., & Leitner, L. (2008). Breaking Out of the Mainstream: The Evolution of Peer Support Alternatives to the Mental Health System. Ethical Human Psychology And Psychiatry, 10(3), 146-162. doi: 10.1891/1559-4343.10.3.146 

The consumer/survivor/ex-patient (c/s/x) movement has been instrumental in the development of a variety of peer-support alternatives to traditional mental health services in both the United States in Canada. This article explores the role of the c/s/x movement in the creation of such alternatives and discusses the various ways peer support is defined and has been put into practice. 


McCann, T., Clark, E., Baird, J., & Lu, S. (2008). Mental health clinicians' attitudes about consumer and consumer consultant participation in Australia: A cross-sectional survey design. Nursing & Health Sciences, 10(2), 78-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2018.2008.00388

The purpose of this study was to assess mental health clinicians' attitudes about mental health consumer participation in inpatient psychiatric units. 


Happell, B., & Roper, C. (2007). Consumer Participation in Mental Health Research: Articulating a Model to Guide Practice. Australasian Psychiatry, 15(3), 237-241. doi: 10.1080/10398560701320113

The purpose of this paper is to examine the literature relating to consumer involvement in mental health research with a view to articulating a model to guide this process.

Gates, L., & Akabas, S. (2007). Developing Strategies to Integrate Peer Providers into the Staff of Mental Health Agencies. Administration And Policy In Mental Health And Mental Health Services Research, 34(3), 293-306. doi: 10.1007/s10488-006-0109-4 

Abstract- This study informs new strategies that promote integration of peer providers into the staff of social service agencies.

Tomes, N. (2006). The Patient As A Policy Factor: A Historical Case Study Of The Consumer/Survivor Movement In Mental Health. Health Affairs, 720-729. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.25.3.720

This paper analyses the history of the modern consumer/survivor movement and its impact on the policy-making climate in the mental health field. 

Happell, B., & Roper, C. (2006). The myth of representation: The case for consumer leadership. Australian E-Journal For The Advancement Of Mental Health, 5(3), 177-184. doi: 10.5172/jamh.5.3.177

The aim of this paper is to consider the implications of engaging in debate about the extent to which consumer advocates might represent a broader group. In particular the potential consequences of this argument include: silencing activism; questioning the legitimacy of consumer roles; and, discriminatory expectations of consumers. 

Davidson, L., Chinman, M., Kloos, B., Weingarten, R., Stayner, D., & Tebes, J. (2006). Peer Support Among Individuals With Severe Mental Illness: A Review of the Evidence. Clinical Psychology: Science And Practice, 6(2), 165-187. doi: 10.1093/clipsy.6.2.165 

This article reviews the history and potential effectiveness of peer support among persons with severe mental illness. F

Coatsworth-Puspoky, R., Forchuk, C., & Ward-Griffin, C. (2006). Peer support relationships: an unexplored interpersonal process in mental health. Journal Of Psychiatric And Mental Health Nursing, 13(5), 490-497. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2006.00970

Consumer‐survivors (C/Ss) identify peer support as a resource that facilitates their recovery. However, little is known about the factors that influence or how the peer support relationship (PSR) develops/deteriorates. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the PSR within the subculture of mental health. 

Epstein, M. (2005). Consumers - the critical reference group for mental health reform. Australian Health Consumer, 1(2005–2006), 7–9.

The author outlines the involvement of consumers in mental health policy following the Burdekin Report and the First National Mental Health Strategy. 

Allsop, J., Jones, K., & Baggott, R. (2004). Health consumer groups in the UK: a new social movement?. Sociology Of Health And Illness, 26(6), 737-756. doi: 10.1111/j.0141-9889.2004.00416

This paper argues that a health consumer movement has developed in the United Kingdom over the last decade. Drawing on two empirical studies of groups that promote and/or represent the interests of patients, users and carers, it argues that groups formed by people with personal experience of a condition are now more widespread. 

Solomon, P. (2004). Peer Support/Peer Provided Services Underlying Processes, Benefits, and Critical Ingredients. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 27(4), 392-401. doi: 10.2975/27.2004.392.401 

The article defines peer support/peer provided services; discusses the underlying psychosocial processes of these services; and delineates the benefits to peer providers, individuals receiving services, and mental health service delivery system. 


Middleton, P., Stanton, P., & Renouf, N. (2004). Consumer consultants in mental health services: addressing the challenges. Journal Of Mental Health, 13(5), 507-518. doi: 10.1080/09638230400004424

Consumer consultants are people who have suffered from a mental illness requiring treatment in a public facility, and who are employed in public mental health services to put forward a consumer perspective.

Lammers, J., & Happell, B. (2003). Consumer participation in mental health services: looking from a consumer perspective. Journal Of Psychiatric And Mental Health Nursing, 10(4), 385-392. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2850.2003.00598

Consumer participation is now broadly reflected in government policy; however, to date there has been little exploration of the extent to which the policy is being realized in practice.


Mead, S., Hilton, D., & Curtis, L. (2001). Peer support: A theoretical perspective. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 25(2), 134-141. doi: 10.1037/h0095032.

This article offers one theoretical perspective of peer support and attempts to define the elements that, when reinforced through education and training, provide a new cultural context for healing and recovery. 


Bjorklund, R.W., Pippard, J.L. The Mental Health Consumer Movement: Implications for Rural Practice. Community Mental Health Journal 35, 347–359 (1999).

Developing consumer-oriented programs for rural areas presents a major challenge for practitioners and policy makers. The authors address the unique barriers facing rural communities and propose a self-help model as a service delivery alternative.


Wadsworth, Y., & Epstein, M. (1998). Journal search results. Systemic Practice And Action Research, 11(4), 353-379. doi: 10.1023/a:1022989723259 

Of particular importance to this chapter is the international trend towards consumer involvement in the planning, design, and implementation of government and private sector mental health services. In this context the changing role of the consumer is examined with special reference to the role of consumer consultants and the introduction of a consumer perspective into service delivery, quality assurance, staff training, and research. 


Frese, F., & Davis, W. (1997). The consumer-survivor movement, recovery, and consumer professionals. Professional Psychology: Research And Practice, 243-245. doi: 10.1037/0735-7028.28.3.243

This article presents a brief history of the consumer-survivor movement in the United States, including the basis for various viewpoints within that movement.

Silva, E. (1990). Collaboration between providers and client-consumers in public mental health programs. New Directions For Mental Health Services, 1990(46), 57-63. doi: 10.1002/yd.23319904608 

As client‐consumer groups grow, their role in the design and implementation of community mental health services is enlarged. Just as the psychotherapist must pay attention to the client's desires, so must mental health providers pay close attention to the wishes of client‐consumers and their potential contribution to the evolution of the service delivery system.

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